The
Psychotherapy
Ring

 

PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION RESULTS
OF
WORLEY'S ID PROFILE 
Table of Contents

Scoring
Reliability
Validity
Table of Psychometric Comparisons

This presentation of the psychometric properties of the WIDP temperament profile will begin with a discussion of the instrument and its structure, reliability, and validity, and conclude with a general summary of its utility based on findings.

The Worley Identity Discovery Program (WIDP) is a software system based on a sixty (60) item inventory that was developed by John W. Worley, Ph.D. It was Doctor Worley's intention to produce an instrument that would yield a quick but detailed summary of individual temperament to aid in facilitation an individual's development and self-understanding.

Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) interpretive reports are based on sixty simple questions, which can be answered on the computer program or on the printed questionnaire for future computer entry by the user.

Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) provides a comprehensive identification of needs, desires and interpersonal behaviors in three fundamental areas of life (Social, Leadership, and Relationship) and those three areas are further divided into two additional categories (Demonstrated and Desired). Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) consists of detailed temperament assessments in the following life areas:
Social Profile Demonstrated
Desired
Leadership Profile Demonstrated
Desired
Relationship Profile Demonstrated
Desired

This information enables the user to quickly assess the individual's strengths and weaknesses, target potential conflicts and develop sound therapeutic strategies for future change. The individual's understanding of self will be greatly enhanced, increasing the potential for a fulfilled and balanced life. With increased insight and self-awareness, they will enjoy greater success in interpersonal relationships.


Social Profile

The Social Profile identifies the individual's temperament needs and desires for socialization, work/school associations and other superficial relationships. Needs in this area may range from demonstrating and desiring minimal socialization, to demonstrating and desiring constant socialization. The Social Profile helps answer the question, "Who is in or out of relationship with this individual?"

Leadership Profile

The Leadership Profile identifies the individual's temperament needs and desires for influencing others, making decisions and assuming responsibilities. Needs in this area may range from independence to dependence. The Leadership Profile helps assess, "Who maintains the power and makes decisions in relationship with this individual?"

Relationship Profile

The Relationship Profile identifies the individual's temperament needs and desires in close relationships with family and friends. Needs in this area may range from emotional relationships and expression of relationships with many people, to isolation from relationships. The Relationship Profile identifies, "How emotionally open or closed to relationships is this individual?"

Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) defines these varying needs and desires, not as "right" or "wrong," but as individual differences and preferences. If the individual's life situation differs radically from his/her needs and desires in one or more of the areas, he/she is likely experiencing stress, conflict and anxiety in relationships. By teaching the individual about his/her unique needs, the user can use (WIDP) to help the individual restore balance and peace to his/her life and relationships.

Building any successful interpersonal relationship involves moving through the three life areas, Social, Leadership, and Relationship, in sequence. People typically begin relationships by settling social issues, to determine if the relationship is safe. They then progress to leadership issues, determining a mutually comfortable way to handle power and control. If the first two areas are resolved satisfactorily, people can move into a relationship, an area of emotional closeness with each other. Many interpersonal conflicts arise because Social and Leadership issues have not been resolved, yet people are attempting to function in an area of personal Relationship with each other.


SCORING

The report generated for each of the three areas is based on two scores; the Demonstrated Score and the Desired Score. Each score may range from zero to nine. The individual's scores are recorded on the front page of Worley's ID Profile (WIDP).


The Demonstrated Score indicates how the individual prefers to act toward other people. This is behavior that generally can be observed, the image presented to others. The Demonstrated Score in each area is the level of behavior the individual feels most comfortable in using to bring people together (Demonstrate Socially), to get his/her way (Demonstrate Leadership) and to be close to others (Demonstrate Relationship). Scores are interpreted as follows:

Demonstrated Score

0 - 1 Very Low The individual rarely expresses this behavior and compulsively avoids this behavior
2 - 3 Low The individual may occasionally express this behavior
4 - 5 Moderate The individual has a tendency toward expressing this behavior
6 - 7 High The individual characteristically expresses this behavior
8 - 9 Very High The individual compulsively expresses this behavior


The Desired Score indicates the individual's preferred behavior from others toward him/her. It is an indicator of the individual's inner needs and desires, which may differ significantly from his/her public image. The Desired Behavior in each area is the behavior the individual prefers others use in their approach to get together with him/her (Desired Social), to get their way (Desired Leadership) and to be close to him/her (Desired Relationship).

Desired Score
0 - 1 Very Low The individual rarely wants this behavior demonstrated toward him/her by others, and compulsively avoids situations where it may occur
2 - 3 Low The individual may occasionally want this behavior demonstrated toward him/her by others
4 - 5 Moderate The individual characteristically wants this behavior demonstrated toward him/her by others.
6 - 7 High The individual characteristically expresses this behavior
8 - 9 Very High The individual will compulsively seek to have this behavior demonstrated toward him/her by others


In general, the greater the discrepancy between the Demonstrated Score and the Desired Score, the higher the probability that the individual is experiencing conflict in this area. Since Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) provides a comprehensive interpretation of these scores, numerical data is provided for your interest only. Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) describes temperament characteristics found in individuals with certain score patterns. Because of variations within scoring ranges, a few details of Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) may not apply exactly to the individual. However, the overall high reliability of Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) is unparalleled in the field of assessment instruments. Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) includes the individual's temperament type or temperament blends, according to the theory first developed by Hippocrates and updated by contemporary professionals. These five basic types (melancholy, choleric, sanguine, introverted sanguine and phlegmatic) and various blends (melancholy-phlegmatic, phlegmatic choleric, introverted sanguine phlegmatic, etc.) can accurately describe the individual's inner needs and desires. Two of the types, the melancholy and the phlegmatic, express along the continuum of introverted behavior. The choleric and the sanguine express as extroverts. The introverted sanguine demonstrates as a melancholy-introvert but desires as an extrovert. Listed below are the variations of the behavior's and the behavioral blends with their numerical values:

  • FIVE BEHAVIORS:
    • IS = Introverted Sanguine
    • S = Sanguine
    • P = Phlegmatic
    • M = Melancholy
    • C = Choleric
  • BLENDS:
    • P/IS= Phlegmatic/Introverted Sanguine
    • IS/P= Introverted Sanguine/Phlegmatic
    • P/S= Phlegmatic Sanguine
    • S/P= Sanguine Phlegmatic
    • MP= Melancholy Phlegmatic
    • PM= Phlegmatic Melancholy
    • CP= Choleric Phlegmatic
    • PC= Phlegmatic Choleric
    • IS/P= Introverted Sanguine/Phlegmatic
    • P/IS= Phlegmatic/Introverted Sanguine
  • COMPULSIVE*: (Small "c" = compulsive)
    • Isc = Introverted Sanguine Compulsive
    • Sc = Sanguine Compulsive
    • Mc = Melancholy Compulsive
    • Cc = Choleric Compulsive

* "Compulsive" in this context is not used in a negative sense like "fanatic, obsessive, uncontrollable, or incorrigible."

"Compulsive",as used here, indicates that the person's living patterns will be primarily focused on the various characteristics of that temperament need, whatever it may be.

For example: individuals who are melancholy compulsive, very introverted, in the area of Social, have a paramount need to maintain their individual privacy ~ away from other people. Melancholy people are very introverted. Likewise, choleric compulsive individuals, in the area of Leadership, focus on maintaining control of themselves and others at all times.

This compulsiveness does not insinuate bad behavior. However, individuals who are compulsive in one or more areas of their behavioral make-up can be very difficult people, especially in the instance of employers, leaders, and managers.

Worley's ID Profile (WIDP) is an innovative temperament resource that, combined with professional communication skills, identifies each individual's unique needs, desires and probable behavioral responses.

In order to assess the psychometric properties of the WIDP Doctor Worley has collected a data base of 585 administrations of the instrument. The data base is almost evenly split between males and females (280 males and 305 females). The average age of the participants was 36 years (37.2 years males and 34.7 years female), with a mean education level of fourteen(14) years for both genders.


RELIABILITY

When defining the psychometric properties of an instrument the term Reliability is used in a number of ways. The most common use being the consistency with which an instrument measures over time, or occasions. This form of reliability, referred to as a Coefficient of Stability or Test Retest Reliability, is assessed by calculating the relationship between two or more sets of scores produced by the same group of individuals across a time interval. To assess the WIDP's Test Retest Reliability thirty nine (39) individuals were given two administrations of the measure with approximately a four (4) month interval between assessments. The average relationship between scores on the six scales of the WIDP across the two administrations was found to be r=.7 (Pearson Product Moment Correlation). This means that the WIDP has very good stability over time, and therefore will provide consistent results between administrations.

NOTE:

The average Test Retest Reliability of similar types of instruments over a one month period is commonly between .7 and .8. The WIDP's r=.7 over four months is very good.

Another measure of reliability used in assessing an instruments properties is the Measure of Internal Consistency Reliability. On the individual scale level (the WIDP has six), this is an indication of how well the items in a specific scale measure the same thing. Because the items on the WIDP's six scales are scored dichotomously (an item is given a value of one (1) or zero (0) based on specific response possibilities) the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) was used. The average internal consistency of the six scales was KR-20 = .54. To put this result in perspective consider that the average internal consistency of the 10 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 (the most widely used psychological measure today) Clinical scales and the three validity scale is .52.

Conclusion:

The WIDP is very sound with respect to instrument reliability.


VALIDITY

How valid is the WIDP? We can think of validity as the extent with which a test measures the characteristics it is designed to measure. Establishing the validity of the WIDP was accomplished by two methods. The first of theses methods (concurrent validity) was to compare and contrast the WIDP scores between individuals not currently in counseling with those who have been diagnosed with specific psychological problems by a clinical psychologists. Diagnosable problems carry known behavior patterns that should be demonstrated by mean scale scores found on the WIDP. Descriptions of the results will be presented by diagnosis:

Major Depression:

Individuals with this diagnosis are typically withdrawn socially and lack the energy to actively pursue relationships. The WIDP profiles for this diagnosis indicates that they seldom initiate interaction with others and they rarely want others to socialize with them. The average Desired Interaction score for this group is almost 0. Further they report less than half of the desire to make decisions or assume responsibility than that of non diagnosed individuals (Desired and Demonstrated Leadership Low).

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:

Relationships for individuals with this disorder are difficult. They typically lack intimacy in relationships and struggle in making decisions often to the point of wanting others to make decisions for them. WIDP scores for this diagnosis indicate that their Desired Relationship (what they desire from others) is much higher than that of the average person. Also, their Demonstrated Leadership scores indicate that they seldom desire making decisions and taking responsibility.

Marital Problems:

While not considered a true psychological disorder, marital problems are a diagnosed condition. Often the problems that couples face are of intimacy and control. Struggles over who makes decisions and who is responsible are common. Blaming one another for what is missing in the marriage is the norm. The scores on the WIDP are consistent with these common issues. These individuals tend to Desire Relationships to be Demonstrated towards them much more than does the average person. Higher than average levels of Desired Leadership indicate that they would like their spouse to take more responsibilities. Their low scores on Demonstrated Socially reflect the lack of desire to be socially involved and a tendency to be withdrawn.

Alcohol Dependence:

Individuals who are alcohol dependent are often found to be lacking in their desire to be responsible and isolating from meaningful social situations. The WIDP profiles of this diagnosis indicate that their Demonstrated Social Profile is less than half of the average response style. They rarely express needs of desire for socialization. Their Desired Leadership scores (near zero) indicates that they do not wish for others to make decisions for them or attempt to influence them. Their lower Demonstrated Leadership score further indicates that they don't want to make decisions.

NOTE:

Even though the WIDP is not intended to be used as a clinical diagnostic tool, the results of the comparison of mean responses with known characteristics of the established diagnoses above indicate that the scales have concurrent validity. That is, they measure what they intend to measure.

The second method of establishing validity focuses on the position that the WIDP scales reveal differing types of effective functioning. If this is true we would expect to find a wide range of response styles in the average population. During the sampling of individuals Dr. Worley administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem measure to eighty two (82) of the participants. If the hypothesis is true that many different scores on the six scales can be presented by healthy individuals, then the scales will have little or no relationship with self-esteem. Results indicate that only Desired Leadership is related (marginally) with self-esteem. The other scales correlated almost zero (meaning no relationship). Do not misinterpret this result to mean that the WIDP is intended to present a complete profile that involves the interaction between the three domains of Social, Leadership, and Relationships; also between the Demonstrated and Desired elements of each of the domains. The results do indicate that self-esteem is not related to any of the temperaments found on any of the scales themselves, but as Dr. Worley has proposed, it is a product of disparity between scales.


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